ALERTAS TECNOLÓGICAS 4º TRIMESTRE 2017

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1. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre

12. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre

4. Carbon and nitrogen mineralization and enzyme activities in soil aggregate-size classes: Effects of biochar, oyster shells, and polymers. Chemosphere. Awad, Y. M., Lee, S. S., Kim, K. H., Ok, Y. S., & Kuzyakov, Y. (2018). Biochar (BC) and polymers are cost-effective additives for soil quality improvement and long-term sustainability. The additional use of the oyster shells (OS) powder in BC- or polymer-treated soils is recommended as a nutrient source, to enhance aggregation and to increase enzyme activities. The effects of soil treatments (i.e., BC (5_Mg_ha_1) and polymers (biopolymer at 0.4_Mg_ha_1 or polyacrylamide at 0.4_Mg_ha_1) with or without the OS (1%)) on the short-term changes were evaluated based on a 30-day incubation experiment with respect to several variables (e.g., CO2 release, NH4+ and NO3_ concentrations, aggregate-size classes, and enzyme activities in an agricultural Luvisol). The BC and BP with the a ddition of OS increased the portion of microaggregates (<0.25_mm) relative to the control soil without any additions, while PAM alone increased the portion of large macroaggregates (1-2_mm). Concentrations of NO3_ also increased in soils treated with OS, OS + BC, and OS + BP as result of the increased chitinase and leucine aminopeptidase activities. The BC and BP when treated with the additional OS had significant short-term impacts on N mineralization without affecting C mineralization in soil. Consequently, the combination of BC or BP with OS was s een to accelerate N turnover without affecting C turnover (and related C losses) from soil. As such, the addition of these additives contributed considerably to the improvement of soil fertility and C sequestration. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 3

6. Improved dielectric properties, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity properties of polymer composites via controlling interfacial compatibility with bio-inspired method. Applied Surface Science. Ruan, M., Yang, D., Guo, W., Zhang, L., Li, S., Shang, Y., ... & Wang, H. (2018). Surface functionalization of Al2O3 nano-particles by mussel-inspired poly(dopamine) (PDA) was developed to improve the dielectric properties, mechanical properties, and thermal conductivity properties of nitrile rubber (NBR) matrix. As strong adhesion of PDA to Al2O3 nano-particles and hydrogen bonds formed by the catechol groups of PDA and the polar acrylonitrile groups of NBR, the dispersion of Al2O3-PDA/NBR composites was improved and the interfacial force between Al2O3-PDA and NBR matrix was enhanced. Thus, the Al2O3-PDA/NBR composites exhibited higher dielectric constant, better mechanical properties, and larger thermal conductivity comparing with Al2O3/NBR composites at the same filler content. The largest thermal conductivity of Al2O3-PDA/NBR composite filled with 30_phr Al2O3-PDA was 0.21_W/m_K, which was 122% times of pure NBR. In addition, the Al2O3-PDA/NBR composite filled with 30_phr Al2O3-PDA displayed a high tensile strength about 2.61_MPa, which was about 255% of pure NBR. This procedure is eco-friendly and easy handling, which provides a promising route to polymer composites in application of thermal conductivity field. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos polímeros orgánicos, con propiedades mejoradas de porosidad y resistencia térmica, más ligeros que los polímeros tradicionales, Nuevas funcionalidades poliméricas como fluorescencia, conductividad eléctrica o iónica y actividad catalítica 1

7. Influence of Nickel zinc Iron oxide Nanoparticles on AC Conductivity and Dielectric Properties of Polypyrrole. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(1), 2479-2487. Shanthala, V. S., Devi, S. S., & Murugendrappa, M. V. (2018). The present study reports on a novel polymer blend electrolyte system comprised of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PEO/PVdF/PMMA) with potassium iodide, iodine and novel and cost effective organic compounds such as 1-(2-(2-(2-(2-(benzoate)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy) benzene (BEB) and 1-(2-(2-(2-(2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)-1H-pyrazole (PEP) for dye- sensitized solar cell applications. The influence of the synthes ized organic compounds on the ionic and photovoltaic characteristics of the electrolytes was studied. In specific, the PEO/PVdF/PMMA/KI/I2/PEP blend electrolyte exhibited high ionic conductivity of 6.3___10_4_S_cm_1 and the corresponding DSSC demonstrated an enhanced conversion efficiency of 9%. The high photovoltaic conversion efficiency of the cell with the PEP-doped system can be attributed to the higher conductivities in the pol ymer electrolyte associated with the greater cross-linking and the increased I_/I3_ transportation along the interaction of the tetra ethylene glycol derivative, salt and the polymer matrix. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos polímeros orgánicos, con propiedades mejoradas de porosidad y resistencia térmica, más ligeros que los polímeros tradicionales, Nuevas funcionalidades poliméricas como fluorescencia, conductividad eléctrica o iónica y actividad catalítica 2

8. Biodegradable 3D Printed Polymer Microneedles for Transdermal Drug Delivery. Lab on a Chip. Luzuriaga, M. A., Berry, D. R., Reagan, J., Smaldone, R. A., & Gassensmith, J. J. (2018). Biodegradable polymer microneedle (MN) arrays are an emerging class of transdermal drug delivery devices that promise a painless and sanitary alternative to syringes; however, prototyping bespoke needle architectures is expensive and requires production of new master templates. Here, we present a new microfabrication technique for MNs using fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printing using polylactic acid, an FDA approved, renewable, biodegradable, thermoplastic material. We show how this natural degradability can be exploited to overcome a key challenge of FDM 3D printing, in particular the low resolution of these printers. We improved the feature size of the printed parts significantly by developing a post fabrication chemical etching protocol, which allowed us to access tip sizes as small as 1 _m. With 3D modeling software, various MN shapes were designed and printed rapidly with custom needle density, length, and shape. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that our method resulted in needle tip sizes in the range of 1-55 _m, which could successfully pene trate and break off into porcine skin. We have also shown that these MNs have comparable mechanical strengths to currently fabricated MNs and we further demonstrated how the swellability of PLA can be exploited to load small molecule drugs and how its degrad ability in skin can release those small molecules over time. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 1

9. Marine Fate of Biodegradable Plastic-Substitution Potential and Ecological Impacts. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Microplastic Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea (pp. 195-197). Springer, Cham. Lott, C., Eich, A., Pauli, N. C., Mildenberger, T., Laforsch, C., Petermann, J. S., ... & Weber, M. (2018). Biodegradable plastic is gaining attention, also through market regulation by a growing number of countries. The substitution of conventional plastic by these new materials is discussed as one mitigation measure to the ever-growing global problem of marine plastic litter. Modelling showed that the estimated substitution potential on a global scale might be small, with a contribution of only 0.3% to the total marine debris. However, there are huge potentials for substitution on local level, and for single plastic items and applications of on e single polymer. In order to assess the environmental risk of new materials such as biodegradable plastics being introduced to the market and potentially also lost to the environment, in-situ studies of the performance under marine conditions have been conducted. Two studies in the Mediterranean Sea are summarized and the role of biofilm formation and fouling on disintegration are highlighted. Preliminary results of ongoing studies in tropical SE Asia are presented. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 2

10. Randomized comparison of novel biodegradable polymer and durable polymer_coated cobalt_chromium sirolimus_eluting stents: Three_Year Outcomes of the I_LOVE_IT 2 Trial. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. Song, L., Li, J., Guan, C., Jing, Q., Lu, S., Yang, L., ... & Han, Y. (2018). We aimed to compare the long-term outcomes of the novel biodegradable polymer cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting stent (BP-SES) versus the durable polymer sirolimus- eluting stent (DP-SES) in the I-LOVE-IT2 trial.Comparisons of th e long-term safety and efficiency of the BP-DES versus the DP-DES are limited.A total of 2,737 patients eligible for coronary stenting were randomized to the BP-SES or DP-SES group at a 2:1 ratio. The primary endpoint of target lesion failure (TLF) was defined as a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (MI), or clinically indicated target lesion revascularization.A three-year clinical follow-up period was available for 2,663 (97.3%) patients. There were no significant differences in TLF (8.9% vs. 8.6%, P_=_0.81), patient- oriented composite endpoint (PoCE) (15.2% vs.14.5%, P_=_0.63), or individual components between the BP-SES and DP-SES. Definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) was low and similar at 3 years (0.8% vs. 1.0%, P_=_0.64). Landmark analysis of 1-3 years showed that the TLF (2.7% vs. 2.6%, P_=_0.81), PoCE (6.2% vs. 5.1%, P_=_0.28 ), and definite/probable ST (0.4% vs. 0.4%, P_=_1.00) were comparable between the 2 arms.In this prospective randomized trial, the BP-SES showed similar clinical results versus the DP-SES in terms of safety and efficacy outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 3

11. High-performance biodegradable polylactide composites fabricated using a novel plasticizer and functionalized eggshell powder. International journal of biological macromolecules, 112, 46-53. Kong, J., Li, Y., Bai, Y., Li, Z., Cao, Z., Yu, Y., ... & Dong, L. (2018). A novel polyester poly(diethylene glycol succinate) (PDEGS) was synthesized and evaluated as a plasticizer for polylactide (PLA) in this study. Meanwhile, an e ffective sustainable filler, functionalized eggshell powder (FES) with a surface layer of calcium phenyphosphonate was also prepared. Then, PLA biocomposites were prepared from FES and PDEGS using a facile melt blending process. The addition of 15_wt% PDEGS as plasticizer showed good miscibil ity with PLA macromolecules and increased the chain mobility of PLA. The crystallization kinetics of PLA composites revealed that the highly effective nucleating FES significantly improved the crystallization ability of PLA at both of non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. In addition, the effective plasticizer and well- dispersed FES increased the elongation at break from 6% of pure PLA to over 200% for all of the plasticized PLA composites. These biodegradable PLA biocomposites, coupled with excellent crystallization ability and tunable mechanical properties, demonstrate their potential as alternatives to traditional commodity plastics. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 4

2. Microbial Degradation of HDPE Secondary Microplastics: Preliminary Results. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Microplastic Pollution in the Mediterranean Sea (pp. 181-188). Springer, Cham. Tsiota, P., Karkanorachaki, K., Syranidou, E., Franchini, M., & Kalogerakis, N. (2018). Plastic debris represents a significant problem among the various problems facing the marine environment. In this work, we aim to explore the ability of two marine indigenous communities to degrade secondary microplastics. Polyethylene (low-density as well as high-density polyethylene) films were exposed to UV radiation until they were fragmented to microplastics under mild mechanical stress. Next, 50mg of sterile microplastics with size 2 mm-250 _m was added into sterile flasks and was incubated separately with these two pelagic microbiomes. A significant decrease in the weight of microplastics was determined along the experimental period, implying the potential ability of indigenous communities to in situ degrade secondary microplastics. Moreover, the protein content marginally decreased while carbohydrate content of both treatments increased at this time interval. Accordingly, the populations increased along experimental period. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 1

3. Impact of Nanoclays on the Biodegradation of Poly (Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites. Polymers, 10(2), 202. Castro-Aguirre, E., Auras, R., Selke, S., Rubino, M., & Marsh, T. (2018). Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a well-known biodegradable and compostable polymer, was used in this study as a model system to determine if the addition of nanoclays affects its biodegradation in simulated composting conditions and whether the nanoclays impact the microbial population in a compost environment. Three different nanoclays were studied due to their different surface characteristics but similar chemistry: organo- modified montmorillonite (OMMT), Halloysite nanotubes (HNT), and Laponite® RD (LRD). Additionally, the organo-modifier of MMT, methyl, tallow, bis-2-hydroxyethyl, quaternary ammonium (QAC), was studied. PLA and PLA bio-nanocomposite (BNC) films were produced, characterized, and used for biodegradation evaluation with an in -house built direct measurement respirometer (DMR) following the analysis of evolved CO2 approach. A biofilm formation essay and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate microbial attachment on the surface of PLA and BNCs. The results obtained from four different biodegradation tests with PLA and its BNCs showed a significantly higher mineralization of the films containing nanoclay in comparison to the pristine PLA during the first three to four weeks of testing, mainly attributed to the reduction in the PLA lag time. The effect of the nanoclays on the initial molecular weight during processing played a crucial role in the evolution of CO2. PLA-LRD5 had the greatest microbial attachment on the surface as confirmed by the biofilm test and the SEM micrographs, while PLA-QAC0.4 had the lowest biofilm formation that may be attributed to the inhibitory effect also found during the biodegradation test when the QAC was tested by itself. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 2

5. Towards improved predictions for the enzymatic chain-end scission of natural polymers by population balances: The need for a non- classical rate kernel. Chemical Engineering Science, 176, 329-342. Ho, Y. K., Kirse, C., Briesen, H., Singh, M., Chan, C. H., & Kow, K. W. (2018). Enzymatic chain-end depolymerization is commonly employed for t he transformation of biomass into important products. To date, investigation on the validity of the rate kernel which is critical to model success, has been conveniently avoided. Through a case study with extensive confrontation with experimental data, we uncover this critical relationship by inspecting every minute detail in the mechanistic modelling procedure. Using a newly proposed shape-evolving function for the rate kernel, model calibration reveals that the commonly employed constant rate kernel is inappropriate for modelling the scission step, and that the apparent rate kernel of hydrolysis resembles an endothermic activation energy barrier function. Facilitated by the adoption of this non-classical rate kernel, good predictions are attained by the model at different hydrolysis conditions with a global parameter set. Being the first to predict distributed data, the methodology here serves as a guide for future studies on the enzymatic disruption of polymeric biomass, i.e. for guiding substrate and enzyme structure modifications. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Octubre-Diciembre 4º Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 4

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