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1. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre

16. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre

4. Microbial Degradation Of Plastic: A Short Study. RADS Journal of Biological Research & Applied Sciences, 8(1), 32-36. Ali, H., & Wahab, I. (2017). Plastic is also one of the keycauses of ecologicalcontamination. Accumulation of plastic pollutants in the environment becoming an ecological threat. The aim of this study is to isolate plastic degrading organism. Plastic is not broken down the plastic. Absence or low activity of catabolic enzymes that can attack its components. Polyesters containing a High ratio of chemically inert components, such as PET, shown resistance against microbial degradation. Buried soil and shake flask methods were used in this study. Plastic samples were buried and incubated in different soil samples for 3- month intervals. Pseudomonas species (15.2%), Proteus species (26.4%) and Micrococcus species (46.1%) were isolated by the Soil Buried Method. These species were tested forconfirming degradation of plastic by using the Shake Flask Method. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 3

7. Plastics in the North Atlantic garbage patch: a boat-microbe for hitchhikers and plastic degraders. Science of the Total Environment, 599, 1222-1232 Debroas, D., Mone, A., & Ter Halle, A. (2017). Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight that impact wildlife. Their fragmentation leads to a continuum of debris sizes (meso to microplastics) entrapped in gyres and colonized by microorganisms. In the present work, the structure of eukaryotes, bacteria and Archaea was studied by a metabarcoding approach, and statistical analysis associated with network building was used to define a core microbiome at the plastic surface. Most of the bacteria significantly associated with the plastic waste originated from non-marine ecosystems, and numerous species can be considered as hitchhikers, whereas others act as keystone species (e.g., Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, Streptomycetales and Cyanobacteria) in the biofilm. The chemical analysis provides evidence for a specific colonization of the polymers. Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria significantly dominated mesoplastics consisting of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polystyrene. Polyethylene was also dominated by these bacterial classes and Actinobacteria. Microplastics were made of polyethylene but differed in their crystallinity, and the majorities were colonized by Betaproteobacteria. Our study indicated that the bacteria inhabiting plastics harboured distinct metabolisms from those present in the surrounding water. For instance, the metabolic pathway involved in xenobiotic degradation was overrepresented on the plastic surface. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 5

13. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyurethanes. In Science and Principles of Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Medical Polymers (pp. 189-216). Chiono, V., Sartori, S., Calzone, S., Boffito, M., Tonda-Turo, C., Mattu, C., ... & Ciardelli, G. (2017). Polyurethanes (PURs) are a class of block copolymers synthesised from three different reagents: a polyol, a di- or multi-isocyanate, and a chain extender. Biodegradable PURs can be synthesised by properly selecting the building blocks with suitable properties for applications in regenerative medicine. The nature and relative amount of hard and soft segments affect the mechanical properties. PURs can be bulk or surface functionalised with biomimetic peptide sequences or natural polymers, affecting cell response and/or the biodegradation rate. PUR particles, fibres, and hydrogels can be designed with a suitable composition for drug encapsulation and controlled release. This chapter offers an overview of the chemistry of biodegradable and biocompatible PURs and reports their application as scaffolds for tissue engineering and carriers for drug delivery. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 1

14. Biodegradable and biocompatible polymers for tissue engineering application: a review. Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology, 45(2), 185-192. Asghari, F., Samiei, M., Adibkia, K., Akbarzadeh, A., & Davaran, S. (2017). Since so many years ago, tissue damages that are caused owing to various reasons attract scientists' attention to find a practical way to treat. In this regard, many studies were conducted. Nano scientists also suggested some ways and the newest one is called tissue engineering. They use biodegradable polymers in order to replace damaged structures in tissues to make it practical. Biodegradable polymers are dominant scaffolding materials in tissue engineering field. In this review, we explained about biodegradable polymers and their application as scaffolds. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 2

15. Synthetic biodegradable medical polyesters. In Science and Princ iples of Biodegradable and Bioresorbable Medical Polymers (pp. 37-78). Li, S. (2017). Degradable and bioresorbable aliphatic polyesters present great interest for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Among them, polylactide or poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polyglycolide or poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), and their copolymers are most attractive because of their outstanding biocompatibility, degradability, and versatility concerning physico-chemical and mechanical properties. This chapter aims to provide a comprehensive review on the state- of-the-art of PLA/PGA polymers, including the synthesis, properties, degradation, and applications. Efforts are focused on detailing the degradation mechanism and the effects of various factors such as PLA configuration, morphology, stereocomplexation, and chemical composition on the degradation behaviours. Hydrolytic degradation of large-size PLA/PGA polymers is characterised by autocatalysis of carboxyl end groups generated by ester bond cleavage. Faster internal degradation and degradation-induced morphological and compositional changes are three of the most important phenomena deduced from the behaviours of various polyesters. These findings should allow to predict the degradation of PLA/PGA polymers, which is of key importance for specific applications. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos desarrollos en polímeros biodegradables 3

2. Degradation profiles of biodegradable plastic films by biodegradable plastic-degrading enzymes from the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica and the fungus Paraphoma sp. B47-9. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 141, 26-32. Sato, S., Saika, A., Shinozaki, Y., Watanabe, T., Suzuki, K., Sameshima-Yamashita, Y., ... & Kitamoto, H. (2017). Agricultural mulch films made from biodegradable polymers (BP) have been used to decrease the burden of plastic waste recovery and recycling. However, their degradations depend largely on environmental conditions and sometimes do not proceed as desired. Yeast strains of Pseudozyma antarctica often isolated from rice husks were found to secrete an esterase to degrade BP films. Poly-butylene succinate-co-adipate (PBSA) films buried in unsterilized rice husks with 60% (w/w) moisture degraded rapidly compared to that buried in field soil. The type strain of P. antarctica JCM 10317 added as cell suspension onto sterilized rice husks with PBSA film grew rapidly forming filamentous growth on the surface of rice husks and films. BP-degrading enzyme secreted by the growing cells was adsorbed on the surface of film and decomposed the film. Addition of rice husk-derived P. antarctica strains also showed BP film degradation activity in sterilized rice husks. In the light of these findings, we suggest that techniques for disposal of used BPs which combine plastics with unutilized residual plant materials piled at the side of agricultural fields be developed. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 1

3. Marine microbe with potential to adhere and degrade plastic structures. In NGBT conference; Oct (pp. 02-04). Kumari, A., Chaudhary, D. R., & Jha, B. (2017). Extensive usages of plastics have led to their accumulation as a contaminant in natural environment worldwide. Plastic is an inert and non-biodegradable material, due to its complex structure and hydrophobic backbone. Conventional methods for reduction of plastic waste such as burning, land-filling release unwanted toxic chemicals to the environment and harming living organism of land as well as the ocean. Thereis growing interest in development of strategies for the degradation of plastic wastes to clean the environment. Marine bacteria have evolved with the capability to adapt and grow in the diverse environmental conditions. We studied the ability of marine bacteria for destabilization and u tilization of different plastic films (LDPE, HDPE, PVC and PET) as a sole source of carbon. An active bacterial strain AIIW2 was selected based on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction assay, and it was identified as Bacillus species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. The viability of the strain over the plastic s urface was studied and confirmed by bacLight assay with fluorescent probes. Scanning Electron Microscope and Atomic Force Microscope images suggested that bacterial interaction over the plastic surface is causing deterioration and roughness with increasing bacterial incubation time. In Fourier transform infrared spectra of treated plastic film evidenced stretching of the (-CH) alkane rock chain and (-CO) carbonyl region, suggested the oxidative activities of the bacteria. The results revealed that ability of bacterial strain for instigating their colonization over plastic films and deteriorating the polymeric structure in the absence of other carbon sources. Moreover, production of extracellular enzymes such as esterase, laccase, and dehalogenase which are reported to support utilization of plastics was confirmed by plate assays. In concise, our results suggested that the marine bacterial strain AIIW2 have the ability to utilize different plastics and dictates the need for the further studies on the underlying biological process. We planned to explore the genes encoding the enzymes involved in degradation of plastic through whole genome study and metabolic profiling to investigate any phenotypic changes. Establishing microbial resources for the degradation of plastics is an ecofriendly approach which could be useful in reduction of its accumulation Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 2

5. Life in Plastic... It's Fantastic: Degradation of BisphenolA in El izabethkingiaAnophelis affected by Cefotaxand Imipenem. Proceedings of Freshman Research in Biochemistry, 3(1). Soliman, S., Matsumoto, K., Wilson, C., Davis, O., Johnson, W., Torres, N., & Canaan, P. (2017). When researching the Elizabethkingia anophelis R26 genome, we utilized the RAST database and PATRIC database to find a specific pathway that was important in understanding this bascteria. We used the PATRIC database to find five genes from the Bisphenol A degradation pathway, the same chemical that is commonly found in plastic. BPA is a health concern today for the possible effects it has on our health and brain (1). We each researched a different gene and found what functions they do and what proteins or enzymes they contain. In general, the genes we researched had several similarities, for most of the genes catalyze or reverse certain reactions for a type of alcohol. Also the majority contained the enzyme de hydrogenase, present in four out of the five genes researched (2, 3).After researching each gene and recording all of our data, we went back to the PATRIC database (4) to obtain the DNA sequence of the genes. BLAST allowed us to find our specific genes in the RAST database (5) and view their placement in the E. anophelis genome. The gene numbers from RAST were used to find the RNAseqand record the transcription patterns expressed in Cefotaxand Imipenem. For some genes, their level of expression increased in the presence of Cefotaxand Imipenem, while for others their expression decreased. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 4.1

8. Agarose bioplastic_based drug delivery system for surgical and wound dressings. Engineering in Life Sciences, 17(2), 204-214. Awadhiya, A., Tyeb, S., Rathore, K., & Verma, V. (2017). We have developed an agarose_based biocompatible drug delivery vehicle. The vehicle is in the form of thin, transparent, strong and flexible films. The biocompatibility and haemocompatibility of the films is confirmed using direct and indirect contact biological assay. Contact angle measurement exhibits hydrophilic nature of the films, and protein adsorption test shows low protein adsorption on the film surface. Drugs, antibiotics and antiseptics, retain their potency after their incorporation into the films. Our bioplastic films can be a versatile medium for drug delivery applications, especially as wound and surgical dressings where a fast drug release rate is desired. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 6

12. Enhancing ionic conductivity in composite polymer electrolytes with well-aligned ceramic nanowires. Nature energy, 2(5), 17035. Liu, W., Lee, S. W., Lin, D., Shi, F., Wang, S., Sendek, A. D., & Cui, Y. (2017). In contrast to conventional organic liquid electrolytes that have leakage, flammability and chemical stability issues, solid electrolytes are widely considered as a promising candidate for the development of next-generation safe lithium- ion batteries. In solid polymer electrolytes that contain polymers and lithium salts, inorganic nanoparticles are often used as fillers to improve electrochemical performance, structure stability, and mechanical strength. However, such composite polymer electrolytes generally have low ionic conductivity. Here we report that a composite polymer electrolyte with well-aligned inorganic Li+-conductive nanowires exhibits an ionic conductivity of 6.05 _ 10_5_S_cm-1 at 30__C, which is one order of magnitude higher than previous polymer electrolytes with randomly aligned nanowires. The large conductivity enhancement is ascribed to a fast ion-conducting pathway without crossing junctions on the surfaces of the aligned nanowires. Moreover, the long-term structural stability of the polymer electrolyte is also improved by the use of nanowires. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos polímeros orgánicos, con propiedades mejoradas de porosidad y resistencia térmica, más ligeros que los polímeros tradicionales, Nuevas funcionalidades poliméricas como fluorescencia, conductividad eléctrica o iónica y actividad catalítica 3

10. A supramolecular Tröger's base derived coordination zinc polymer for fluorescent sensing of phenolic-nitroaromatic explosives in water. Chemical science, 8(2), 1535-1546. Shanmugaraju, S., Dabadie, C., Byrne, K., Savyasachi, A. J., Umadevi, D., Schmitt, W., ... & Gunnlaugsson, T. (2017). A novel metronidazole fluorescent nanosensor based on graphene quantum dots embedded silica molecularly imprinted polymer. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 92, 618-623. Mehrzad-Samarin, M., Faridbod, F., Dezfuli, A. S., & Ganjali, M. R. (2017). A novel optical nanosensor for detection of Metronidazole in biological samples was reported. Graphene quantum dots embedded silica molecular imprinted polymer (GQDs-embedded SMIP) was synthesized and used as a selective flu orescent probe for Metronidazole detection. The new synthesized GQDs-embedded SMIP showed strong fluorescent emission at 450 nm excited at 365 nm which quenched in presence of Metronidazole as a template molecule.. The quenching was proportional to the concentration of Metronidazole in a linear range of at least 0.2 _M to 15_M. The limit of detection for metronidazole determination was obtained 0.15 _M. The nanosensor successfully worked in plasma matrixes. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos polímeros orgánicos, con propiedades mejoradas de porosidad y resistencia térmica, más ligeros que los polímeros tradicionales, Nuevas funcionalidades poliméricas como fluorescencia, conductividad eléctrica o iónica y actividad catalítica 1

6. Life in Plastic... It's Fantastic: Degradation of BisphenolA in El izabethkingiaAnophelis affected by Cefotaxand Imipenem. Proceedings of Freshman Research in Biochemistry, 3(1). Ganesh, P., Dineshraj, D., & Yoganathan, K. (2017). Production and screening of depolymerising enzymes by potential bacteria and fungi isolated from plastic waste dump yard sites. IJAR, 3(3), 693-695. The most alternative plastic waste treatment method is enzymatic degradation. These kind of depolymerising enzymes are effectively produced by some microorganisms. This study revealed that, microorganisms produce depolymerising enzymes during biodegradation of polyethylene carry bag (PCB). For that, in sterile minimal broth, pure culture of various isolates were added, pieces of mass polyethylene carry bag films were added and incubated for a month. After the incubation the broth was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 20 minutes at 4 ° C. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp and fungi Fusarium graminearum were found producing depolymerising enzymes viz., amylase, lignin /manganese peroxidase and laccase followed by others. These potential bacteria and fungi might be applied for bioremediation in the polyethylene contaminated environments. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 4.2

9. A high heat-resistance bioplastic foam with efficient electromagnetic interference shielding. Chemical Engineering Journal, 323, 29-36. Cui, C. H., Yan, D. X., Pang, H., Jia, L. C., Xu, X., Yang, S., ... & Li, Z. M. (2017). Owing to the growing awareness of sustainability, bioplastic based composites arouse considerable attention. However, the low use temperature (usually <100 ° C) limits their applications. To improve the heat resistance and simultaneously meet the lightweight requirement for microwave shielding, a high heat-resistance crystallite, stereocomplex crystallites (sc) formed by the stereocomplexation crystallization between enantiomeric poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide) (PDLA), was introduced into the conductive carbon nanotube (CNT)/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite foam. The composite foam was fabricated by a nonsolvent induced phase separation and freeze-drying method. An intriguing phenomenon occurred in the CNT/PLLA/PDLA/dichloromethane (DCM) solution upon addition of hexane, which not only induced the phase separation of mixed solution but also facilitated the formation of 100% sc in the formed crystals in the resultant CNT/PLA/DCM gel. The freeze-dried CNT/PLA foam exhibits a low foam density of 0.10 g/cm3 and desirable specific EMI shielding effectiveness as high as 216 dB cm3/g. More importantly, the formation of sc with high crystallinity (_45%) and the interconnected CNT conductive networks guaranteed the dimensional stability of CNT/PLA foams, only shrinking 4.3% at 220 ° C. Our work provides a facile method to fabricate a PLA based bioplastic foam and suggests high heat-resistance and efficient EMI shielding performance. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Enzimas y degradación de plásticos, encapsulación de enzimas, degradación de plásticos, alternativas a los vertidos plásticos, regeneración medioambiental, obtención de plásticos biodegradables. 7

11. Polypyrrole nanotubes: The tuning of morphology and conductivity. Polymer, 113, 247-258. Sapurina, I., Li, Y., Alekseeva, E., Bober, P., Trchova, M., Moravkova, Z., & Stejskal, J. (2017). Polypyrrole nanotubes rank among important functional materials with high application potential. They are prepared by the oxidative polymerization of pyrrole usually in the presence of methyl orange and represent conducting polymers with the highest bulk conductivity, 40-50 S cm_1. The role of methyl orange in promoting the nanotubular morphology of polypyrrole is discussed on the basis of FTIR and Raman spectra. The model based on the organization of acid form of methyl orange molecules to an in-situ-generated solid template is proposed. Various factors controlling the morphology and conductivity of polypyrrole have been identified. Higher acidity of reaction medium or the addition of ethylene glycol increased the diameter of nanotubes or even converted nanotubes to globules, and the conductivity was reduced. Nanotubes have not been obtained at temperature elevated to 60 ° C but one-dimensional polypyrrole morphology was surprisingly produced even when the oxidation of pyrrole took place in frozen reaction medium, in ice, at _24 ° C. The counter-ions in iron(III) salt used for the oxidation and the presence of water-soluble polymers had virtually no influence on morphology and conductivity. On the other hand, a s eries of organic dyes used as replacement of methyl orange had substantial effect on both the nanotubular morphology and conductivity. The role of template formation is discussed by comparing methyl orange and ethyl orange dyes. While the former dye precipitates under acidic conditions and supports the growth of nanotubes, the latter does not and globules are obtained instead. Alertas Tecnológicas 2017 Abril-Junio 2 o Trimestre Nuevos polímeros orgánicos, con propiedades mejoradas de porosidad y resistencia térmica, más ligeros que los polímeros tradicionales, Nuevas funcionalidades poliméricas como fluorescencia, conductividad eléctrica o iónica y actividad catalítica 2

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